JAPANESE LESSON, Minna no Nihongo

Minna no Nihongo 18① | Can Do

how to express can do ga dekimasu

こんにちは、おじゃちゃんです。Today’s lesson is; Minna no Nihongo 18 ① | How to Express “Can Do” in Japanese.
Can you say “I can speak Japanese.” in Japanese? You can make a sentence with~できる” by putting a noun and a verb together. Learn how to talk about your ability and skill here.

Let’s get started!

Minna No Nihongo: Beginner 1, 2nd Edition (Japanese)

Customer Reviews: ★★★★☆

Publisher : 3A CORPORATION; 2nd Edition (March 16, 1998)

Can Do | Noun + ga dekimasu


■ Can Do | Noun + ができます。

Japanese can do noun ga dekimasu

You can make a sentence very easily with “Noun + ができます”.
You can express your ability and skill by using “できる” as a “can” in English.
Plus, the meaning of “できる” often contains the meaning “well.
Let’s learn how to make the affirmative form with “noun + ができます” here!

ヘンリーは 英語が できます
henry wa eigo ga dekimasu
Henry can speak English. / Henry can speak English well.

ヘンリーは 仕事が できます。
henry wa shigoto ga dekimasu
Henry is good at work.

■ Can’t Do | Noun + ができません。

Japanese can't do noun ga dekimasen

You can make a sentence with “noun + ができません” which means “cannot + do.
It’s the negative form but you don’t have to use “nai-form”.
You can express what you can’t do with this form. Plus, you can express impossible things because of some factors or circumstances.

しばちゃんは 早起きが できません
shibachan wa hayaoki ga dekimasen
Shiba-chan can’t get up early.

しばちゃんは マスクが できません
shibachan wa masuku ga dekimasen
Shiba-chan can’t wear a mask.

■ Can S Do ~? | Noun + ができますか。

Japanese noun ga dekimasu ka

You can make an interrogative sentence with “noun + ができますか”  which means “Can ~?”.
You can ask someone’s ability and skill or want someone to do with this form. In the interrogative sentence, be careful with we often omit the subject to be natural except but the 3rd person as well.

お菓子作りが できますか
okashi zukuri ga dekimasuka
Can you make sweets?

フランス語が できますか
furansu go ga dekimasuka
Can you speak French?

・ Can S Do ~? | 5W1H + Noun + ができますか。

Japanese can S do noun ga dekimasuka 5w1h

You can make various questions with 5W1H. You can communicate with your friends well with 5W1H. That’s very useful.

どこで 食事が できますか
dokode shokuji ga dekimasuka
Where can I eat?

誰が 運転を できますか
dare ga unten dekimasuka
Who can drive a car?

あなたは 何が / を できますか
anata wa naniga dekimasuka
What can you do?

なぜ オランダ語が できますか
naze oranda go ga dekimasuka
Why can you speak Dutch?

どのように 提出が できますか
donoyouni teishutsu dekimasuka
How can I submit it?

Can Do | Noun + できます。 | Exercise 1.

Can Do | Verb + koto ga dekimasu


■ Can Do | Verb こと + ができます。

Japanese can do verb koto ga dekimasu

You can make a sentence with “verb + こと” when you want to use a noun but a verb.
And you can expand your expression by putting places, time, means, and things together.

ヘンリーは 日本語で 読むことが できます
henry wa nihongo de yomukoto ga dekimasu
Henry can read in Japanese.

ヘンリーは ネットで チケットを 取ることが できます
henry wa nettode chiketto wo torukoto ga dekimasu
Henry can take the ticket on the internet.

■ Can’t Do | Verb こと + ができません。

Japanese can't do verb koto ga dekimasen

You can make the negative sentence with “verb こと + ができません” as well.

ここで 写真を 撮ることが できません
kokode shashin wo torukoto ga dekimasen
You can’t take photos here.

試験に 受かることが できません
shiken ni ukarukoto ga dekimasen
I can’t pass the test.

■ Can S Do ~? + 5W1H | Verb こと + ができますか。

Japanese can S do verb koto ga dekimasu ka

来年 日本に 行くことが できますか
rainen nihon ni ikukoto ga dekimasuka
Can I / you go to Japan next year?

どうやって これを 使うことが できますか
douyatte kore wo tsukaukoto ga dekimasuka
How can I use this?

PLUS + | Verb こと + はできませんか。

Japanese could S do verb koto ga dekimasen ka

You can literally read this as “Can’t you ~? or You can ~, can’t you?”. But, you can also express the way of modest talking by combining the negative form and the interrogative form like “Could you / I ~?” etc with “verb こと + はできませんか”.

フタを 開けることが できませんか
futa wo akerukoto ga dekimasenka
You can open the lid, can’t you?

木曜日に 休みを 取ることは できませんか
yasumi wo torukoto wa dekimasenka
Would you mind if I take Thursday off?

Can Do | Verb こと + ができます。 | Exercise 2.

Homework


Translate Japanese into English and comment below.

①10時に 駅で 待ち合わせ ができますか 。
💡Hint 駅 eki is station and 待ち合わせ machiawase is to arrange to meet.

②わたしは 日本語で 音楽を 聞くことが できます。
💡Hint 音楽 ongaku is music and 聞く is to listen.

Okay, that’s all for today!
Good luck with your Japanese study.

Minna No Nihongo: Beginner 1, 2nd Edition (Japanese)

Customer Reviews:★★★★☆

Publisher : 3A CORPORATION; 2nd Edition (March 16, 1998)

THE NEXT LESSON is:
Minna no Nihongo 18②| “Before” and “After”

THE PREVIOUS LESSON is: 
Minna no Nihongo 17② | Must Do & Don’t Have to Do

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