JAPANESE LESSON

Japanese Lesson 19: te-form Is Very Easy!

te-form is very easy

Let’s learn “て形 te-form” today!
You can also learn how to make “verb + た ta” because it’s same as the “te-from” conjugation. For beginner’s level of Japanese, it’s a very important conjugation because it might decide your Japanese improvement whether you can conjugate te-form or not.

BUT, You can learn te-form with only 4 rules VERY EASILY here!

Let’s get started!

A Dictionary of Basic Japanese Grammar

Amazon Reviews:★★★★

Publisher: JAPAN TIMES

What is particle て?


conjunctive particle te

“て te” is one of particles and which is called “接続助詞 setsuzoku-joshi”. It can join verbs, adjectives or auxiliary verbs by adding て te” to a verb.

私は 音楽を 聴い 勉強します
watashi wa ongaku wo kiite benkyou shimasu
I study and listen to music.

It the same role of “and” in English.

the roles of te

1. Paratactic Relation 

“て te” joins together related words and words or phrases and phrases on an equal basis.

学校に って バイトにも 行った
gakkou ni itte baito nimo itta
I went to school and I went to my part time job too.

2. Assistant Relation

“て te” makes an assistant relation with verbs, adjectives or auxiliary verbs.

この本を  欲しい
kono hon wo mite hoshii
I want you to see this book.

This form is similar to the grammar of “an infinitive” in English.

You can use this form when you want to say:

want  sb to do
Vて 欲しい
try to do
Vて みる

3. Resultative Relation

“て te” joins together a result of the predicting against already completed results.

For example:
STEP1. completed result
I go to Starbucks.
STEP2.  a result you’re going to do
I drink a cup of coffee.

STEP1+STEP2.
スタバに 行って コーヒーを 飲みます。
sutaba ni itte koohii wo nomimasu
I go to Starbucks and drink a cup of coffee.

What is particle た?


jodoushi ta

“た ta” is one of particles and which is called “助動詞 jodoushi”. It can show the past tense, the perfect tense or the continuation by adding “た ta” to a verb.

the roles of ta

1. The Past Tense

“た ta” shows the past occurrence.

昨日 買い物に 行った
kinou kaimono ni itta
I went shopping yesterday.

2. The Perfect Tense

“た ta” shows the completed action. There is no difference between past tense and perfect tense in Japanese like English.

もう 宿題が 終わった
mou shukudai wo owatta
I’ve already finished my homework.

3. Showing the Continuation 

“た ta” shows the continuation.

For example:
A
昨日 ノートを 買った。
kinou nooto wo katta
I bought a notebook yesterday.
B
ノートを 使った。
nooto wo tsukatta
I used the notebook.

A + B
昨日 買った ノートを 使った。
kinou katta nooto wo tsukatta
I used the notebook which I bought yesterday.

How to conjugate te-form?


conjugation of te-form

Though you might think “It’s easy. Verb + て or た right?”, te-form is usually the most difficult verb conjugations.

The reason why is that “て形 te-kei te-form” transforms 4 type of forms like “話して hanashite”, “言って itte”, “読んで yonde” and “聞いて kiite”.

Besides, “て te” sometimes becomes “で de” and “た ta” becomes “だ da” depending on a following verb. 

But you can identify it easily if you focus on the end of the word of the verb!

*If you don’t know “Classifying Verbs” and “Group 1 Verb Conjugation”, you should read these articles before you go advance.

1. -i sound verb + て / た

you can make “te-form”with “Verb + て” or “Verb + た” in “~す” of Group 1, Group 2 and Group 3.

■ ~す of Group 1 Verbs

-i sound verb with te ta
jisho-formte-form てver.te-form たver.

tamesu
to try
sagasu
to search

kowasu
to break

■ Group 2 Verbs

-i sound verb with te group 2
jisho-formte-form てver.te-form たver.
える
oshieru
to teach
える
kieru
to disappear
える
moeru
to burn

You can check the detail conjugations of Group 2 here. ↓

■ Group 3 Verbs

-i sound verb with te group 3
i sound verb te ta group 3

You can check the detail conjugations of Group 3 here. ↓

2. i-onbin | ~いて -ite  ~いで -ide

■ ~いて -ite / ~いた -ita

~く” of Group 1 only becomes “~いて ite” or “~いた -ita”. We learn this pronunciation as “イ音便 i-onbin”.

i onbin ite ita te-form
jisho-formte-form てver.te-form たver.
聞く
kiku
to hear
いていた
書く
kaku
to write
いていた
開く
hiraku
to open
いていた
解く
toku
to solve
いていた

・行く is an Exception

But the exception is “行く iku to go”. “行く” only becomes “行って itte” or “行った itta” in this conjugation.

i onbin iku te-form

■ ~いで -ide / ~いだ -ida

~ぐ” of Group 1 only becomes “~いで ide” or “~いだ -ida”. It is also “イ音便 i-onbin”.

i onbin ida ide te-form
jisho-formte-form てver.te-form たver.

oyogu
to swim
いでいだ

nugu
to take off
いでいだ

sosogu
to pour
いでいだ

fusegu
to protect
いでいだ
らぐ
yasuragu
to settle
安らいで安らいだ

3. soku-onbin | ~って -tte

~つ”, “~る” and “~う” of Group 1 becomes “~って -tte” or “~った -tta”. We learn this pronunciation as “促音便 soku-onbin”.

soku onbin tte tta
jisho-formte-form てver.te-form たver.
勝つ
katsu
to win
ってった
待つ
matsu
to wait
ってった
立つ
tatsu
to stand
ってった
打つ
utsu
to beat
ってった
育つ
sodatsu
to grow
ってった

4. hatsu-onbin | ~んで -nde

“~ぬ”, “~ぶ” and “~む” of Group 1 becomes “~んで -nde” or “~んだ -nda”. We learn this pronunciation as “撥音便 hatsu-onbin”.

hatsu onbin nde nda te-form
jisho-formte-form てver.te-form たver.
呼ぶ
yobu
to call
んでんだ
喜ぶ
yorokobu
to please
んでんだ
叫ぶ
sakebu
to scream
んでんだ
運ぶ
hakobu
to carry
んでんだ
飛ぶ
tobu
to fly
んでんだ

te-form QUIZ


Homework


Conjugate these verbs in Japanese to the comment below!

①する to do
②泣く to cry
③住む to live

Okay, that’s all for today!

Good luck with your Japanese study 😉

A Dictionary of Basic Japanese Grammar

Amazon Reviews:★★★★

Publisher: JAPAN TIMES

P.S. My English skill is not enough yet. Please correct me with DM from CONTACT if my English is wrong. Thank you for your cooperation!

Next Lesson is;

Japanese Lesson 20: The Difference Between に and で

Previous Lesson is; CLICK HERE!

Japanese Lesson 18: Verb Conjugation Group 3

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