JAPANESE LESSON

Japanese Lesson 16: Verb Conjugation of Group 1

verb conjugation group 1

Hi, ojachan is here 🙂 Let’s learn verb conjugations of Group 1 today! Basic verb conjugation is “五段活用 godan-katsuyou”. I’m going to teach you the way of grammar which Japanese kids learn.

*I can’t perfectly apply the way because Japanese learners who don’t speak Japanese as mother tongue don’t have potential knowledge for Japanese.

A Dictionary of Basic Japanese Grammar

Amazon Reviews:★★★★

Publisher: JAPAN TIMES

Group 1 of a Verb


group 1 verb

Group 1 of a verb is the verbs which conjugate with 5 vowels and it ends with “う く ぐ す つ ぬ ぶ む and る”. Japanese kids learn it in the age of 14 year-old as 五段活用 in national language class. Even Japanese kids are hard to memorize and understand the verb conjugation as they chant like “未然連用終止…ない・う・よう・ます・た・て…” repeatedly.

While Japanese learners only learn it as jisho-form, masu-form, nai-form and te-form.

Group 1 of a verb is called “-u verb”. I gave the detail lesson in this article “How to Classify Verbs”.

group 1 五段活用ア段

■ Forms

辞書形 jisho-form
“辞書形 jisho -form” appears in a dictionary. It’s like a “ to do” in English. It always becomes -u sound in 五段活用.
When you learn verbs you need to learn this form THE FIRST definitely.
ない形 nai-form
“ない形 nai-form” conjugates to negative-form.  It’s like a “not to do” in English.
It always becomes -a sound in 五段活用. Japanese learners need to learn this form definitely.
ます形 masu-form
“ます形 masu-form” conjugates to polite-form.  There is no expression in English.
It always becomes -i sound in 五段活用. Japanese learners need to learn this form definitely.
て形 te-form
“て形 te-form” is used when the verb follows other an adjectives or a verb. It corresponds to the grammar of English “An Infinitive” or “A gerund”.
You need to learn “音便 onbin” if you want to understand this conjugation. Depending whether you can understand this form or not, you can make progress of your Japanese.

I’m going to tell you about “音便 onbin” on next article.

五段活用 godan-katsuyou


“五段活用 godan-katsuyou” is the way of conjugation for Group 1 of a verb. The big difference between classifying verbs and Verb conjugation is; we focus on the sound before the suffix when we classify verbs and we focus on the suffix itself when we conjugate a verb.

FormEnglishMeaningFollowing-conjugation sound
語幹
gokan
stemthe part of a word taken off the ending
未然形
mizen-kei
nai-formthe form for the thing’s happened not yetない

よう
 
-a
-o
連用形
renyou-kei
masu-form / te-formthe form follows an adjective or a verbます

-i
終止形
shuushi-kei
jisho-formthe form ends with “。”-u
連体形
rentai-kei
the form follows a nounとき
こと
-u
仮定形
katei-kei
the form for supposition-e
命令形
meirei-kei
imperative formthe form for imperative form命令-e

■ Following Other Words

“う u” and “よう you”
“う u” and “よう you” are auxiliaries to make suggestions or offers. it’s same as “let’s” in English. It always becomes -o sound in 五段活用.
e.g. 日本語を 学Let’s learn Japanese.
“た ta”
“た ta” are auxiliaries to make the past tense or the perfect tense. It’s same as “-ed” in English. It always becomes -i sound in 五段活用.
e.g. 今日 日本語を 学。 kyou nihongo wo mananda I learned Japanese today.
“終止形 shuushi-kei a conclusive form”
“終止形 shuushi-kei a conclusive form” is “jisho-form a dictionary form”. It usually ends with “。読点 touten” which is same as “. period” in English. You can use it when you assert or itemize something. It always becomes -u sound in 五段活用.
e.g. その1. 動詞を 学 sono ichi doushi wo manabu Step 1. Learning Verbs
“とき toki”
“とき toki” is a noun to make a sentence of the flow the time. It’s a same meaning of “when” as a conjunction in English. It always becomes -u sound in 五段活用.
e.g. 日本語を 学とき、わたしは  楽しいです。nihongo wo manabu toki watashi wa tanoshii desu I am happy when I learn Japanese.
“こと koto”
“こと koto” is a noun when you use a verb as a noun. It corresponds to the grammar of English “A gerund” of “-ing”. It always becomes -u sound in 五段活用.
e.g. 日本語を学ことは、私にとって 楽しいです。 nihongo wo manabu koto wa watashi nitotte tanoshii desu Learning Japanese is fun for me.
“ば ba”
“ば ba” is a particle to make a sentence of introducing possible or impossible situations. It’s a same meaning of “if” as a conjunction in English. It always becomes -e sound in 五段活用.
e.g. 日本語を 学、楽しく アニメを 観れます。nihongo wo manabe ba tanoshiku anime wo miremasu I can enjoy watching anime if I learn Japanese.
“命令形 meirei-kei imperative form”
“命令形 meirei-kei imperative formis used when you say “Do something.” or requests. It always becomes -e sound in 五段活用.
e.g. 楽しく 日本語を 学tanoshiku nihongo wo manabe Learn Japanese happily

■ The Classes of Godan-Katsuyou

The name of “五段活用 godan-katsuyou” is different depending on the conjugation of “行 gyou row” of Hiragana. The way of identifying the name is the initial of the suffix.

For example:
・書く kaku conjugates with -k sound so it’s “カ行五段活用 KAgyou-godan-katsuyou”.
読む yomu conjugates with -m sound so it’s “マ行五段活用 MAgyou-godan-katsuyou”.
学ぶ manabu conjugates with -b sound so it’s “バ行五段活用 BAgyou-godan-katsuyou”.

However, be careful for the exception ワア行五段活用 WAAgyou-godan-katsuyou”.

Read this if you want to know about rows and columns of Hiragana.

1. カ行五段活用 Ends with “~く”

“カ行五段活用 KAgyou-godan-katsuyou” always ends with “~く ku” of the suffix.

Let’s think about “働くhataraku to work”.

語幹:働 hatara 
活用語尾:く ku(辞書形)
活用:カ行五段活用 KAgyou-godan-katsuyou

カ行五段活用 verb 1

There are other verbs like this below.

辞書形
jisho-form
未然形
nai-form
連用形
masu-form /
te-form
終止形
jisho-form
連体形
rentai-kei
仮定形
katei-kei
命令形
order-form
聞く
kiku
to hear
ない
ます

とき
こと
書く
kaku
to write  
ない 書ます

とき
こと
開く
hiraku
to open  

ない
ます


とき
こと
解く
toku
to solve
ない
ます

とき
こと
行く
iku
to go
ない
ます

とき
こと

2. ガ行五段活用 Ends with “~ぐ”

“ガ行五段活用 GAgyou-godan-katsuyou” always ends with “~ぐ gu” of the suffix.

Let’s think about “急ぐ isogu to hurry”.

語幹:急 iso
活用語尾:ぐ gu(辞書形)
活用:ガ行五段活用 GAgyou-godan-katsuyou

ガ行五段活用 verb 2

There are other verbs like this below.

辞書形
jisho-form
未然形
nai-form
連用形
masu-form /
te-form
終止形
jisho-form
連体形
rentai-kei
仮定形
katei-kei
命令形
order-form
泳ぐ
oyogu
to swim

ます

とき
こと
脱ぐ
nugu
to take off
ない
ます

とき
こと
注ぐ
sosogu
to pour  
ない
ます

とき
こと
防ぐ
fusegu
to protect
ない
ます

とき
こと
安らぐ
yasuragu
to settle
安らない安ら安らます
安ら
安ら
安ら安らとき
安らこと
安ら安ら

3. サ行五段活用 Ends with “~す”

“サ行五段活用 SAgyou-godan-katsuyou” always ends with “~す su” of the suffix.

Let’s think about “話す hanasu to speak”.

語幹:話 hana
活用語尾:す su(辞書形)
活用:サ行五段活用 SAgyou-godan-katsuyou

サ行五段活用 verb 3

There are other verbs like this below.

辞書形
jisho-form
未然形
nai-form
連用形
masu-form / te-form
終止形
jisho-form
連体形
rentai-kei
仮定形
katei-kei
命令形
order-form
逃す
nigasu
to release
ない
ます

とき
こと
試す
tamesu
to try
ない
ます

とき
こと
探す
sagasu
to find
ない
ます

とき
こと
壊す
kowasu
to break
ない
ます

とき
こと
消す
kesu
to delete
ない
ます

とき
こと

4. タ行五段活用 Ends with “~つ”

“タ行五段活用 TAgyou-godan-katsuyou” always ends with “~つ tsu” of the suffix.

Let’s think about “持つ motsu to have”.

語幹:持 mo
活用語尾:つ tsu(辞書形)
活用:タ行五段活用 TAgyou-godan-katsuyou

タ行五段活用 verb

There are other verbs like this below.

辞書形
jisho-form
未然形
nai-form
連用形
masu-form / te-form
終止形
jisho-form
連体形
rentai-kei
仮定形
katei-kei
命令形
order-form
勝つ
katsu
to win
ない
ます

て 
とき
こと
待つ
matsu
to wait
ない
ます

とき
こと
立つ
tatsu
to stand
ない
ます

とき
こと
打つ
utsu
to beat
ない
ます

とき
こと
育つ
sodatsu
to grow
ない
ます

とき
こと

5. ナ行五段活用 Ends with “~ぬ”

“ナ行五段活用 NAgyou-godan-katsuyou” always ends with “~ぬ nu” of the suffix.

Let’s think about “死ぬ shinu to die”.

語幹:死 shi
活用語尾:ぬ nu(辞書形)
活用:ナ行五段活用 NAgyou-godan-katsuyou

ナ行五段活用 verb

There is no other verbs.

6. バ行五段活用 Ends with “~ぶ”

“バ行五段活用 BAgyou-godan-katsuyou” always ends with “~ぶ bu” of the suffix.

Let’s think about “学ぶ manabu to learn”.

語幹:学 mana
活用語尾:ぶ bu(辞書形)
活用:バ行五段活用 BAgyou-godan-katsuyou

バ行五段活用 verb

There are other verbs like this below.

辞書形
jisho-form
未然形
nai-form
連用形
masu-form /
te-form
終止形
jisho-form
連体形
rentai-ke
i仮定形
katei-kei
命令形
order-form
呼ぶ
yobu
to call
ない
ます

とき
こと
喜ぶ
yorokobu
to please
ない
ます

とき
こと
叫ぶ
sakebu
to scream
ない
ます

とき
こと
運ぶ
hakobu
to carry
ない
ます

とき
こと
飛ぶ
tobu
to fly
ない
ます

とき
こと

7. マ行五段活用 Ends with “~む”

“マ行五段活用 MAgyou-godan-katsuyou” always ends with “~む mu” of the suffix.

Let’s think about “読む yomu to read”.

語幹:読 yo
活用語尾:む mu(辞書形)
活用:マ行五段活用 MAgyou-godan-katsuyou

マ行五段活用 verb

There are other verbs like this below.

辞書形
jisho-form
未然形
nai-form
連用形
masu-form /
te-form
終止形
jisho-form
連体形
rentai-kei
仮定形
katei-kei
命令形
order-form
住む sumu to live ない
ます

とき
こと
悲しむ kanashimu to feel sad 悲しない
悲し
悲します
悲し
悲し
悲し悲しとき
悲しこと
悲し悲し
含む fukumu to include ない
ます

とき
こと
悩む nayamu to worry ない
ます

とき
こと
挑む idomu to challenge ない
ます

とき
こと

8. ラ行五段活用 Ends with “~る”

ラ行五段活用 RAgyou-godan-katsuyou” always ends with “~る ru” of the suffix.

Let’s think about “作る tsukuru to make”.

語幹:作 tsuku
活用語尾:る ru(辞書形)
活用:ラ行五段活用 RAgyou-godan-katsuyou

ラ行五段活用 verb

There are other verbs like this below.

辞書形
jisho-form
未然形
nai-form
連用形
masu-form /
te-form
終止形
jisho-form
連体形
rentai-kei
仮定形
katei-kei
命令形
order-form
走る hashiru to run ない
ます

とき
こと
謝る ayamaru to apologizeない
ます

とき
こと
送る okuru to send ない
ます

とき
こと
戻る modoru to go back ない
ます

とき

こと
頑張る ganbaru to work hard 頑張ない
頑張
頑張ます
頑張
頑張
頑張頑張とき
頑張こと
頑張頑張

9. ワア五段活用 Ends with “~う”

“ワア行五段活用 WAAgyou-godan-katsuyou” always ends with “~う u” of the suffix.

The reason is why this conjugation is named strangely that this verbs conjugate with w sound and vowels because of the ancient grammar.

Let’s think about “会う au to meet”.

語幹:会 a
活用語尾:る u(辞書形)
活用:ワア行五段活用 WAAgyou-godan-katsuyou

ワア行五段活用 verb

There are other verbs like this below.

辞書形 jisho-form未然形
nai-form
連用形
masu-form /
te-form
終止形
jisho-form
連体形
rentai-kei
仮定形
katei-kei
命令形
order-form
買う
kau
to buy
ない
ます

とき
こと
言う
iu
to say
ない
ます

とき
こと
使う
tsukau
to use
使ない
使
使ます
使
使
使使とき
使こと
使使
歌う
utau
to sing
ない
ます

とき
こと
手伝う
tetsudau
to help
手伝ない
手伝
手伝ます
手伝
手伝
手伝手伝とき
手伝こと
手伝手伝

Let’s Practice


Homework


Conjugate these verbs in Japanese to the comment below!

① 押す
② 座る
③ 笑う

Okay, that’s all for today!

Good luck with your Japanese study 😉

A Dictionary of Basic Japanese Grammar

Amazon Reviews:★★★★

Publisher: JAPAN TIMES

P.S. My English skill is not enough yet. Please correct me with DM from CONTACT if my English is wrong. Thank you for your cooperation!

Next Lesson is; CLICK HERE!

Japanese Lesson 17:Verb Conjugation of Group 2

Previous Lesson is; CLICK HERE!

Japanese Lesson 15: Intransitive Verbs vs Transitive Verbs ( Jidoushi vs Tadoushi )

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