JAPANESE LESSON, Minna no Nihongo

Minna no Nihongo 17② | Must Do & Don’t Have to Do

Obligation and Permission “Must do” in Japanese

Today’s lesson is; Minna no Nihongo 17② | Must Do & Don’t Have to Do.
Can you say “I must study hard.” in Japanese? Have you ever seen the sign a board “You must stop.” on the street? You can learn the obligation and the permission form in Japanese here!

Minna No Nihongo: Beginner 1, 2nd Edition (Japanese)

Customer Reviews: ★★★★☆

Publisher : 3A CORPORATION; 2nd Edition (March 16, 1998)

The Obligation Form | Must Do ~.


Let’s learn the obligation form.
This form is formal and polite expression. So you can use this for anyone and need to use a “nai-form” conjugated verb. If you don’t know how to conjugate nai-form, you can learn it here!

When we speak English, we use the right grammar depending on the situation like; “I must go home because I’m hungry. (It’s a subjective intension.)” or “I have to leave soon because I have the curfew. (It’s an objective intention.)” But we don’t have to use the obligation form according to the intension properly.

■ Must Do ~. ~なければなりません。

#17-2 must do nakereba narimasen

You can express the obligation form with “nai-form + なければなりません”.
You can take the both meaning of “speaker must do” and “listener must do” as we often omit subject of the sentence.
Let’s learn how to make the obligation form here!

NOUNをVERBなければなりません。

#17-2 must do nakereba narimasen 2

十分な 間隔を あけなければ なりません
juubunna kannkaku wo akenakereba narimasen
I / You must keep a plenty of space.

PLACE に(to) / で(in, at)VERBなければなりません。

#17-2 must do nakereba narimasen 3

ここ 書かなければ なりません
koko ni kakanakereba narimaen
I/You must write it down here.

TIMEに(at, on, by)VERBなければなりません。

#17-2 must do nakereba narimasen 4

 なければ なりません
ima shinakereba narimasen
I / You must do it now.

🐶POINT
You don’t have to add these words;
昨日 今 明日 先週 今週 来週 先月 今月 来月 昨年 今年 来年 etc…

■ The Obligation Form | Casual Expressions 

Let’s learn how to express the casual obligation form.
You can tell the different various nuances by using forms properly.
Learn how to use the forms with Japanese expressions commonly used here.

1. End with “nai-form”

宿題を ないといけない。
shukudai wo shinaito ikenai
I / You must do my homework.

2. Omitted “narimasen”

宿題を なければ。
shukudai wo shinakereba
I must do my/your homework.

3. A Bit Formal

宿題を なくては。
shukudai wo shinakutewa
I must do my homework.

4. Casual

宿題 ないと。
shukudai shinaito
I / You must do my/your homework.

5. Very Casual And Cute

宿題 なきゃ。
shukudai shinakya
I must do my homework.

6. Very Casual And Cuter

宿題 なくちゃ。
shukudai shinakucha
I must do my homework.

7. Sounds Like a Stubborn Man

宿題 ねばならん。
shukudai seneba naran
I / You must do my/your homework.

8. Sounds Like a SAMURAI

宿題 ねばならぬ。
shukudai seneba naranu
I / You must do my/your homework.

9. Sounds Like Old Japanese That Women Would Use

宿題 ねばなりませぬ。
shukudai seneba narimasenu
I / You must do my/your homework.

🐶POINT
When you talk with your friends and family, you should use these casual expressions because it sounds more natural.

~なければなりません。 | Exercise 1.

The Permission Form | don’t have to Do


■ Don’t Have to Do ~なくていいです。

#17-2 don't have to do nakute iidesu

You can make the permission form with “nai-form + なくていいです”
This form sounds gentler and you can imply that the listener can do or not in this sentence like a “don’t have to do” in English.
Let’s learn how to use the permission form here!

・NOUNをVERBなくていいです。

#17-2 don't have to do nakute iidesu 2

皿洗い なくて いいです。
saraarai wo shinakute iidesu
I / You don’t have to do the dishes.

・PLACEに(to)/ で(at, in)VERBなくていいです。

#17-2 don't have to do nakute iidesu 3

病院 待たなくて いいです。
byouin de matanakute iidesu
I/You don’t have to wait at hospital.

・TIMEにVERBなくていいです。

#17-2 don't have to do nakute iidesu 4

今週 提出しなくて いいです。
konshuu teishutsu shinakute iidesu
I/You don’t have to submit it this week.

■ The Permission Form | Casual Expressions 

Let’s learn how to express the casual Permission form.
You can tell the different various nuances by using forms properly. Plus, I’m going to tell you several dialects.

1. omitted “desu”

宿題 なくていい。
shukudai shinakute ii
I / You don’t have to do my/your homework.

2. Sounds Gentle

宿題 なくていいよ。
shukudai shinakute iiyo
You don’t have to do your homework.

3. osaka-ben (dialect)

宿題 んでええ。
shukudai sende ee
I/You don’t have to do my/your homework.

4.  hakata-ben (dialect)

宿題 んでよか。
shukudai sende yoka
I/You don’t have to do my/your homework.

 ~なくていいです。 | Exercise 2.

Homework

Translate Japanese into English and comment below.

① 今月 確定申告を しなければなりません。
💡Hint 確定申告(kakutei shinkoku) is a tax return.

②税務署に 郵送しなくて いいです。
💡Hint 税務署 is the tax office. 郵送する is to send by post.

Okay, that’s all for today!
Good luck with your Japanese study.

Minna No Nihongo: Beginner 1, 2nd Edition (Japanese)

Customer Reviews: ★★★★☆

Publisher : 3A CORPORATION; 2nd Edition (March 16, 1998)

THE NEXT LESSON is:
Minna no Nihongo 18① | “Can Do”

THE PREVIOUS LESSON is: 
Minna no Nihongo 17① | The Imperative Form “Don’t do” in Japanese

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