JAPANESE LESSON, Minna no Nihongo

Minna no Nihongo 17 ① | The Imperative Form “Don’t do” in Japanese

the imperative form donot do in Japanese

こんにちは、みなさん おじゃちゃんです。Today’s lesson is; Minna no Nihongo 17 ① | The Imperative Form “Don’t do” in Japanese.
Can you say “Don’t touch this!” in Japanese? You can learn the imperative mood with the negative form in Japanese here!

Let’s get started!

Minna No Nihongo: Beginner 1, 2nd Edition (Japanese)

Customer Reviews: ★★★★☆

Publisher : 3A CORPORATION; 2nd Edition (March 16, 1998)

1. Conjugating Verbs


Let’s learn how to conjugate verbs a little before you learn the imperative mood.
We are going to use nai-form in this lesson.

Do you remember?

You can learn the detail lesson in “The Verb Conjugation Group 1”!

You always need to think from jisho-form when you conjugate verbs.

■ How to conjugate nai-form?

The conjugation sounds of nai-form is different depending on the Verb Groups.

how to conjugate nai form

・The Verb conjugation | Group

nai form group1

We conjugate jisho-form to nai-form by replacing “u sounds” with “a sounds”.
It changes the sounds depending on the rows of consonants.

Englishjisho-formnai-form
to write
kaku
ない
kakanai
to speak
hanasu
ない
hanasanai
to wait
matsu
ない
matanai
to die
shinu
ない
shinanai
to line up
narabu
ない
narabanai
to read
yomu
ない
yomanai
to know
shiru
ない
shiranai
to say
iu
ない
iwanai

・The Verb conjugation | Group Ⅱ

nai-form group2

We conjugate Group Ⅱ verbs with “i sounds” or “e sounds”. These verbs don’t change at all. It’s very easy, right? You just add “ない”  instead of the suffix.

・i-sounds column

English jisho-form nai-form
to exist
iru
ない
inai
to get up
okiru
ない
okinai
to pass
sugiru
ない
suginai
to see
miru
ない
minai
to borrow
kariru
ない
karinai

📖 The difference between 見ない and 見てない
見ない is 見る’s nai-form. 見てない means “I haven’t seen (yet).” Originally, 見てない is 見ていない. We usually omit “い” of 見ていない when we have a conversation. So 見ない and 見て(い)ない are a little different.

・e-sounds column

Englishjisho-form nai-form
to answer
kotaeru
ない
kotaenai
to take
ukeru
ない
ukenai
to fit合わ
awaseru
合わない
awasenai
to throw away
suteru
ない
sutenai
to ask
tazuneru
ない
tazunenai
to eat
taberu
ない
tabenai
to stop
tomeru
ない
tomenai
to put in
ireru
ない
irenai
to get off
oriru
ない
orinai

・The Verb conjugation | Group Ⅲ

nai-form group3

You just memorize Group Ⅲ verbs because there are only 2 verbs, “来る” and “する”. These verbs are exceptions.

Englishjisho-formnai-form
to come
kuru
ない
konai
to do
suru
ない
shinai

⚠️ CAUTION
Japanese people usually use kanji. You can see the different pronunciations of “来る kuru” and “来ない konai” even though it is used same kanji.  Let’s use verbs and get used to the pronunciations little by little.

2. The Imperative Form in Japanese


■ The Imperative Form | Don’t do ~.

Let’s learn the imperative form. You can tell the differences of various nuances by using forms properly. Learn how to use the forms with Japanese expressions commonly used here.

・Don’t do ~! ~ ないで

the inperative form don't do

Let’s learn the imperative form “Don’t do ~.” here.
Don’t do ~ !” is “~ないで。” in Japanese.
This expression sounds like a commanding tone so you need to be careful when you use this form.

JapaneseEnglish
触らないで。
sawaranaide
Don’t touch!
飲まないで。
nomanaide
Don’t drink!
撮らないで。
toranaide
Don’t take pictures!
しないで。
shinaide
Don’t do!
行かないで。
ikanaide
Don’t go!

・Don’t do ~, please. ~ないでね。

the imperative form don't do please

“~ないでね” means Don’t do ~, please.”.
You can give a casual and kind tone when you add “ね” to the imperative form. You can also use this form to younger people, your family members and children etc.

JapaneseEnglish
心配しないでね。
shinpaishinaidene
Don’t be worried, please.
忘れないでね。
wasurenaidene
Don’t forget, please.
入らないでね。
hairanaidene
Don’t enter, please.
食べないでね。
tabenaidene
Don’t eat, please.
遅れないでね。
okurenaidene
Don’t be late, please.

・Do NOT do ~! ~ないでよ!

the imperative form do not do

“~ないでよ” means “Do NOT do ~!”. 
You can give an emphatic and unpleasant tone when you add “よ” to the imperative form. Especially, this form is feminine.

JapaneseEnglish
押さないでよ!
osanaideyo
Do NOT push me (it)!
笑わないでよ!
warawanaideyo
Do NOT laugh at me!
来ないでよ!
konaideyo
Do NOT come!
見ないでよ!
minaideyo
Do NOT look!
言わないでよ!
iwanaideyo
Do NOT tell!

・DON’T do ~. ~ jisho-form + な!

the imperative form DON'T DO

“isho-form + な!” means “DON’T do ~.”“な” means “not”.
You can give a very commanding and dangerous tone when you use this form. Especially, this form is masculine.

JapaneseEnglish
動くな!
ugokuna
DON’T move!
しゃべるな!
shaberuna
DON’T talk!
寝るな!
neruna
DON’T sleep!
走るな!
hashiruna
DON’T run!
壊すな!
kowasuna
DON’T break it!

・Please don’t do ~. ~ないでください。

the imperative form please don't do

“~ないでください” means “Please don’t do ~”.
You can give a polite and formal tone when you add “ください” to the imperative form. You can also use this form to superior people, elder people, and customers etc. Nevertheless, this form is the imperative form so treat it carefully.

JapaneseEnglish
開けないでください。
akenaidekudasai
Please don’t open.
閉めないでください。
shimenaidekudasai
Please don’t close.
座らないでください。
suwaranaidekudasai
Please don’t sit.
置かないでください。
okanaidekudasai
Please don’t leave your things!
捨てないでください。sutenaidekudasaiPlease don’t throw sit away.

You can learn more how to say prohibitions here!🐶

The Imperative Form | Exercise


Homework


Translate English into Japanese and comment below.

① Don’t cry.
💡Hint To cry is 泣くnaku.

② Please don’t turn off the light.
💡Hint To turn off is 消す kesu.

Okay, that’s all for today!

Good luck with your Japanese study.

Minna No Nihongo: Beginner 1, 2nd Edition (Japanese)

Customer Reviews:★★★★☆

Publisher : 3A CORPORATION; 2nd Edition (March 16, 1998)

THE NEXT LESSON is:
Minna no Nihongo 17 ② | Obligation and Permission “Must do” in Japanese

THE PREVIOUS LESSON is: 
Minna no Nihongo 16 ② : Combining Sentences Using Adjectives

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